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Mastering Estimated Taxes: How to Calculate and Save for Federal and Vermont State Taxes


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Calculating the right amount to save for estimated taxes is a crucial aspect of responsible financial planning for self-employed individuals, freelancers, or small business owners. It can be a bit daunting and confusing, but it's essential to ensure that you're prepared to meet your tax obligations without any surprises at the end of the year. In your case, residing in Vermont adds an extra layer of complexity due to state taxes. This blog post will guide you through the process of determining how much you should be saving for estimated taxes, taking into account federal and state taxes, as well as deductions and business expenses.

Understanding the Basics of Estimated Taxes

Before we delve into the specific percentages and deductions, it's essential to understand what estimated taxes are and why they matter. Estimated taxes are quarterly payments made to the government to cover income and self-employment tax liabilities for the year. If you're self-employed, you don't have an employer withholding taxes from your paychecks, so you need to make these estimated payments to avoid penalties and interest charges.

Federal Taxes

The first thing you should consider is your federal tax liability. In the United States, the federal government imposes income and self-employment taxes on your earnings. The self-employment tax includes Social Security and Medicare taxes. The combined rate for Social Security and Medicare is typically 15.3%, with 12.4% going to Social Security on the first $142,800 of net earnings and 2.9% for Medicare on all net earnings. However, it's important to note that there's a cap on the amount of income subject to Social Security tax, which is adjusted annually.

State Taxes

In addition to federal taxes, you'll also need to account for state taxes. Vermont has its own state income tax system. The exact rate you'll pay can vary depending on your income level and filing status, and it may change from year to year due to legislative decisions. Therefore, it's crucial to stay up to date on Vermont's state tax rates.

Calculating Your Estimated Tax Liability

To calculate how much you should be saving for estimated taxes, follow these steps:

1. Estimate Your Income

Determine your expected annual income. This should include all sources of income, including your self-employment earnings and any other taxable income you anticipate for the year.

2. Deductions and Business Expenses

Before calculating your tax liability, consider your potential deductions and business expenses. These can significantly reduce your taxable income. Common deductions and expenses include:

  • Business expenses (e.g., office supplies, travel, equipment)
  • Home office expenses
  • Vehicle expenses
  • Health insurance premiums
  • Retirement contributions
  • Other applicable deductions

It's crucial to keep thorough records of these expenses and consult with a tax professional to ensure you are taking advantage of all available deductions and credits. Reducing your taxable income can significantly lower your tax liability.

3. Calculate Federal Tax

After accounting for deductions and business expenses, estimate your federal self-employment tax. Remember, this includes both Social Security and Medicare taxes. You can use IRS Form 1040-ES to help calculate your federal estimated tax liability.

4. Calculate State Tax

Next, calculate your Vermont state income tax liability. The exact rate will depend on your income, and you should use the Vermont Department of Taxes' resources or consult with a tax professional to ensure you have the correct state tax rates and guidelines.

5. Total Tax Liability

Add your federal and state tax liabilities together. This will give you the total estimated tax liability for the year.

6. Divide by Four

Since estimated taxes are paid quarterly, divide your total estimated tax liability by four to determine how much you should save each quarter.

The 38% Rule of Thumb

Now, regarding the 38% you mentioned in your question, it's worth noting that this percentage isn't a fixed rule. Instead, it's a rough estimate that includes both federal and state taxes, as well as self-employment tax, and additional taxes like the Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT). This 38% figure often serves as a conservative baseline for self-employed individuals to ensure they have enough set aside to cover their tax obligations.

However, it's crucial to understand that your actual tax liability may be lower than 38% if you have significant deductions and business expenses. It's always advisable to consult with a tax professional who can provide a more accurate estimate based on your specific circumstances. Your tax advisor will consider your unique situation, helping you maximize your deductions and minimize your tax liability legally.


Determining how much you should be saving for estimated taxes involves careful consideration of your federal and state tax obligations, potential deductions, and business expenses. While the 38% estimate can serve as a helpful guideline, it's not a one-size-fits-all solution. Consult with a tax professional who is well-versed in both federal and state tax laws, as well as the unique tax regulations of Vermont. They will help you calculate your estimated tax liability accurately and ensure that you're saving an appropriate amount to cover your taxes throughout the year. By following these steps and seeking expert guidance, you can navigate the complex world of estimated taxes with confidence and avoid any unwelcome financial surprises come tax season.