8 min read

Filing Taxes 101: A Guide for Lawn Care Businesses

If you are operating a lawn care business or planning to start one, understanding your tax obligations is crucial. Navigating taxes may appear daunting, but with a clear grasp of the basics and careful record-keeping, the process can be simplified. This resource is specially designed to help lawn care entrepreneurs delve into the fundamentals of business taxes, explore the significance of detailed and precise records, identify deductible expenses, and competently navigate IRS forms and publications.

Understanding Business Tax Basics

Understanding Business Taxes

Business taxes consist of multiple components, including income tax, self-employment tax, payroll tax, and sales and use tax. Understanding these tax types is vital in maintaining compliance and accurately determining your annual tax liability.

Income Tax

Businesses, including your lawn care business, are required to pay income tax on all taxable income. The rate of tax you pay may depend on how your business is structured, whether it be a sole proprietorship, corporation, or partnership. The tax is calculated on gross income, which includes all sales minus the cost of goods sold. This amount is reduced further with deductions such as operating expenses, depreciation, and interest.

Self-Employment Tax

Self-employment tax covers Social Security and Medicare taxes for individuals who work for themselves, such as lawn care business owners. It’s essential to understand that this tax is typically calculated and paid in addition to your regular income tax. Self-employment tax rates are calculated as a percentage of your net earnings from self-employment, around 15.3% as of 2022. Half of what you pay into the self-employment tax can be deducted when calculating your adjusted gross income on your tax return.

Payroll Tax

If your lawn care business employs other individuals, you need to understand payroll taxes, which includes two components: withholdings from employees’ wages and taxes paid by the employer based on the employees’ wages. The tax is a percentage of your employee’s paychecks and includes contributions to Social Security and Medicare. Employers are responsible for collecting and remitting these taxes to the IRS.

Sales and Use Tax

Sales tax is a tax on sales of physical goods and some services, including lawn care. If your lawn care business operates in a state that requires sales tax on services, you’ll need to collect this tax from your customers and remit it to the relevant state tax department. A central government body sets the tax at a jurisdiction level and it varies widely by state.

Tax Payment Timeline

Both income tax and self-employment tax payments are typically due on an annual basis, with tax returns due on April 15th each year. If you’re doing business as a sole proprietor, income from your lawn care business is reported on Schedule C of your personal tax return. You have to file a Schedule SE to calculate your self-employment tax if you made $400 or more from self-employment.

Employers must file and pay payroll taxes on a semi-weekly or monthly basis depending on the size of their payroll. Sales and use taxes usually must be filed and paid on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis, depending on the laws in your particular state.


Understand that each business is unique and this guide provides a basic understanding of the different types of taxes a lawn care business may be responsible for. It’s highly recommended to consult with a tax professional or certified accountant to ensure your business is tax compliant.

Record Keeping for Lawn Care Businesses

Importance of Record Keeping for Lawn Care Business

Accurate and thorough record-keeping is pivotal for all businesses, including lawn care services. Good record keeping can assist in tracking expenses and income, monitoring the growth of the business, and preparing financial statements. It also proves to be beneficial while filing tax returns or in cases of an audit by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Lawn care businesses, like all other businesses, are bound by various local, state, and federal tax laws that require regular tax filings.

Key Record-Keeping Requirements

  • Income: All the income generated from the services needs to be recorded, involving client invoices and work orders.
  • Expenses: Detailed record of all business-related costs such as labor cost, insurance, equipment purchases, repair expenses, fuel, etc.
  • Assets: Keep track of all the assets along with their purchase dates and costs, depreciation, and any capital gains or losses.
  • Tax documents: All tax-related documents like forms, returns, audits should be kept file.
  • Employee Information: If you hire employees, keep a record of their personal details, compensation, tax withholding details, etc.

Understanding Tax Forms and Deadlines

The nature of tax forms and deadlines depends on the legal structure of your business.

  • If you operate as a Sole Proprietor, your business income and expenses are reported on Schedule C of your personal tax return (Form 1040), which is usually due on April 15th of the following year.
  • Partnerships file an annual information return Form 1065, with the partners reporting their share of profits and losses on Schedule K-1. The due date for Form 1065 is March 15th of the following year.
  • Corporations file Form 1120 or 1120-S and must pay taxes on their profits. Due dates can vary, but Form 1120 is generally due on April 15th of the following year.

Tips for Maintaining an Organized Record-Keeping System

  • Use Bookkeeping Software: Digital bookkeeping tools can automate many meticulous tasks, backing up your data, and ensuring accuracy.
  • Categorize Expenses: Track your expenses properly categorized as per IRS bookkeeping guidelines. This expedition can help you in tax deductions.
  • Save and File Receipts: Keep physical copies of receipts for major purchases and digital snapshots for smaller ones.
  • Regular Review: Regularly review your transactions to keep track of your financial condition and ensure accuracy.
  • Seek Professional Help: Consider hiring a Certified Public Accountant or trained tax professional to streamline your financial tracking systems and evaluate your transactions.

Remember, it’s important to keep your records for at least three years from the date you filed your original return, as per IRS guidelines.

Expenses and Deductions

Understanding Business Expenses and Deductions for a Lawn Care Business

As a lawn care business owner, your taxable income can be significantly reduced by accurately recording and deducting business expenses. These might include equipment costs, travel expenses, supplies, and home office use.

Recording Equipment Costs

Items such as lawn mowers, blowers, trimmers, and other lawn care tools are typically considered capital expenses – these are assets that benefit your business over a period greater than a year. To accurately record these costs, keep all receipts and notes on when and where you purchased the items. You have two options for deducting these costs: you can either depreciate the cost over the item’s useful life or deduct the full cost in the year of purchase under Section 179 of the IRS tax code.

Capturing Travel Expenses

Traveling to and from job sites is a common expense in the lawn care business. Keep a detailed log of the miles you drive for your business. This log should include dates, mileage, and the purpose of each trip. You can then multiply your total business miles by the standard IRS mileage rate (56 cents in 2021) to get your deduction amount.

Documenting Supply Expenses

In the lawn care business, you regularly need to purchase items like fertilizer, grass seed, and gasoline for equipment. Always save your receipts for these supplies, and make sure to note what each purchase was for. These costs can be fully deducted in the year they are incurred.

Using the Home Office Deduction

If you use part of your home exclusively for your business, you may qualify for a home office deduction. To claim this, you’ll need to know the square footage of your office space and your home’s overall square footage. The IRS allows two methods to calculate this deduction. The simplified method allows a deduction of $5 per square foot (up to 300 square feet), and the actual expense method allows a proportionate deduction of home expenses like mortgage interest, insurance, utilities, and repairs.

How to Claim Deductions on your Tax Return

To claim these deductions, you would report them on Schedule C (Profit or Loss from Business) of your tax return. Make sure you have detailed records of all expenses in case of an IRS audit. Note that you can only deduct expenses that are both ordinary and necessary. An ordinary expense is one that is common and accepted in your line of business. A necessary expense is one that is helpful and appropriate for your business.

Knowing how to accurately record and claim these costs can save your lawn care business a significant amount on taxes. Always consult a tax professional if you are unsure about any IRS rules or regulations.

Navigating IRS Forms and Publications

Understanding Basic IRS Form For Business

The first and foremost form that should be dealt with effectively is Form 1040, the U.S Individual Income Tax Return. The net profit or loss from your lawn care business needs to be reported on Schedule C of your personal tax return (Form 1040). The profit (or loss) from your Schedule C is then transferred to the first page of your Form 1040. This form is used to report the profits, losses and credits of a business, which will be counted against your other income.

Procuring Necessary Forms

You can get IRS tax forms and instructions online at www.irs.gov. Enter “Publications” in the search box on the home page to find a complete list of current forms, instructions, and publications. Scroll down and select “Publication 334, Tax Guide for Small Businesses”, “Publication 535, Business Expenses”, and “Publication 583, Starting a Business and Keeping Records”.

Interpreting IRS Forms

Learning to interpret IRS forms needs careful attention as wrong interpretation may lead to errors in filing. Key points in a form are: Who should file, When to file, Where to file, and Which records to keep. Get to grips with these points by studying them in depth in the instructions that accompany each form. If any confusion still persists, it is advisable to seek the help of a professional tax preparer or an attorney who specializes in tax law.

Filing Taxes for a Lawn care Business

Being specific for a lawn care business, you would need to understand that all the money you earn from your business — whether it’s from mowing, fertilizing, thatching, or aerating lawns; providing pest control; or selling related goods or services — counts as income. You’d have to report this income to the IRS.

Deductible Business Expenses

Income not spent on deductible business expenses will be taxable. Deductible expenses include the cost of chemicals, seeds, fertilizer, equipment, vehicle mileage, and repair and maintenance of tools and equipment. It also includes advertising, insurance, and fees paid for professional advice. For a complete list of deductible expenses, refer to IRS Publication 535.

Taxes and Employees

If you hire an employee, you have to withhold federal income tax, Social Security tax, and Medicare tax from his or her wages. The withheld money along with your share of Social Security and Medicare tax is reported and paid using Form 941, Employer’s Quarterly Federal Tax Return. Also, you need to pay federal unemployment tax using Form 940, Employer’s Annual Federal Unemployment (FUTA) Tax Return. If your lawn care employees earn tips, they have to report them to you and you have to withhold and pay additional taxes.

Remember, misclassifying an employee as an independent contractor to avoid paying taxes can result in heavy penalties. Always seek professional advice if you’re unsure about any aspect of filing your taxes.

Contemplating and implementing these critical tax considerations will ultimately secure your lawn care business. Detailed records, cautious accounting of expenses, efficient use of deductions, and sound understanding of IRS documentation can power you through tax season with minimal complications. Even though the process may seem challenging initially, with time and consistent implementation, you can become proficient at managing your business tax responsibilities. Be diligent, stay educated, and your lawn care business will thrive not just in vibrant greens, but in healthy, compliant financial records too.